Reportable Incidents | SKYbrary Aviation Safety (2023)


Incident.An occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft which affects or could affect the safety of operation.

Serious incident.An incident involving circumstances indicating that an accident nearly occurred.

The difference between an accident and a serious incident lies only in the result.(ICAO Annex 13)

For more information see:AccidentandSerious Incident.

(Video) The Importance of Safety Reporting (Safety Management System)


In accordance with provisions laid down in Annex 13 — Aircraft Accident Investigation, Member States shall report to ICAO information on all aircraft accidents which involve aircraft of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 2 250 kg. ICAO also collects information on aircraft incidents considered important for safety and accident prevention.

The State in which the occurrence takes place must inform the State of Registry; the State of the Operator; the State of Design; the State of Manufacture; and ICAO as soon as possible. The notification shall be in plain language and its content shall contain as many as possible items from the list provided in ICAO Annex 13, Chapter 4 "Notification".

Theinvestigation of an accident or of a serious incidentis a responsibility of the State in which the occurrence takes place. This responsibility is usually exercised by the national accident and incident investigation board, which is normally a department of the transport ministry and independent of the civil aviation authority. In some States, investigation is the responsibility of the national judicial system.

Incident Data Reporting - ICAO Requirements

There is no ICAO imposed obligation for States to conduct an investigation into an incident. However, Annex 13, paragraph 6.9 recommends that incidents involving aircraft of over 5 700 kg be reported if the investigation has revealed matters considered to be of interest to other States. If a State has determined that a specific incident is significant enough to warrant an investigation, then an Incident Data Report should be sent toICAO ADREP.

Types of Aircraft Incidents of Main Interest to ICAO

  • Engine failure.Failures of more than one engine on the same aircraft and failures which are not confined to the engine, excluding compressor blade and turbine bucket failures.
  • Fires.Fireswhich occur in flight including those engine fires which are not contained in the engine.
  • Terrain and obstacle clearance incidents.Occurrences which result in danger of collision or actualcollision with terrain or obstacles.
  • Flight control and stability problems.Occurrences which have caused difficulties incontrollingthe aircraft, e.g. aircraft system failures, weather phenomena, operation outside the approved flight envelope.
  • Take-off and landing incidents.Incidents such asundershooting, overrunning, running off the side of runways, wheels-up landing.
  • Flight crew incapacitation.Inability of any required flight crew member to perform prescribed flight duties as a result of reduced medical fitness.
  • Decompression.Decompressionresulting in emergency descent.
  • Near collisions and other air traffic incidents.Nearcollisionsand other hazardous air traffic incidents including faulty procedures or equipment failures.

This list can be expanded further in accordance to the examples given in ICAO Annex 13 regarding the description of serious incidents. The list below, extracted from ICAO Annex 13, is not exhaustive and only serves as guidance to the definition of serious incident.

  • Aborted take-offson a closed or engaged runway.
  • Take-offs from a closed or engaged runway with marginal separation from obstacle(s).
  • Landings or attempted landings on a closed or engaged runway.
  • Gross failures to achieve predicted performance during take-off or initial climb.
  • Fires and smoke in the passenger compartment, in cargo compartments or engine fires, even though such fires were extinguished by the use of extinguishing agents.
  • Events requiring the emergency use of oxygen by the flight crew.
  • Aircraft structural failures or engine disintegrations not classified as an accident.
  • Multiple malfunctions of one or more aircraft systems seriously affecting the operation of the aircraft.
  • Fuel quantity requiring the declaration of an emergency by the pilot.
  • Failures of more than one system in a redundancy system mandatory for flight guidance and navigation.

ADREP Reporting Forms and Taxonomies

In the ADREP system, the occurrence is described by event-specific unique code identifiers.

(Video) Accident Case Study: Faulty Assumptions

  • ADREP Reporting forms can be obtainedhere.
  • ADREP 2000 standard Taxonomies defined by an international working group chaired by ICAO can be obtainedhere.

The forms provide space for input for five pairs of events and phase of flight. Since events and phases of flight are to be stored into an electronic data base, it is necessary to use standard terms when completing the forms and to be as specific as possible. The pairs in the form must be complete; an event without its matching phase of flight is of little value to ICAO.

ADREP Working Practices

  • Data Analysis

When ADREP reports are collected from States, the information is first checked and then stored into a database. The stored information constitutes a data bank of world-wide occurrences to provide States with the following services:

a)a bi-monthly summaryof reports received, providing States with an up-to-date picture of significant occurrences on a world-wide basis, as well as with an opportunity to check their reports as processed by ICAO. States are requested to advise ICAO of any errors found;

b)annual ADREP statistics, presenting statistical information under broad categories such as the types of events which took place and the phases of operation in which they occurred; and

c)replies to States’ requestsfor specific information. When States are requesting information for specific safety issues, they should forward to ICAO a request for information outlining the problem under study. Replies from ICAO may be sent using mail, telex, etc., depending on the urgency of the request and the amount of data to be sent.

  • Protection of Data

Considering the sensitivity in some States regarding the dissemination of incident information, the following constraints are placed upon the use of incident data:

(Video) Incident Investigation, #Incident, #Accident, #Investigation, #Safety

a) ICAO will use incident information for the purpose of accident prevention only;

b) ICAO will not conduct analyses based only on aircraft incident information without identifying it as such; and

c) ICAO will, before publication, delete the name of the State of Registry, the registration and the name of the owner/operator

European Occurrence Reporting Directive Relating to Civil Aviation

A provision in Regulation (EU) no 376/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 April 2014 on the reporting, analysis and follow-up of occurrences in civil aviation sets a requirement for reporting occurrences at European Community level. The objective of this requirement is to introduce further improvement of the safety of civil aviation by better understanding of these occurrences and to facilitate analysis and trend monitoring in order to initiate corrective action.

According to the Regulation, when an occurrence involves aircraft registered in a Member State or operated by an undertaking established in a Member State, this occurrence should be reported even if it happened outside the territory of the European Community.

Aviation operators and service provider organisations of the Member States, through theirmandatory reporting systems, are required to report to the competent authorities the occurrences presented inCommission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/2018.

(Video) Reporting safety occurrences

The full text of Regulation (EU) No 376/2014 can be foundhere.


EUROCONTROL has provided inESARR 2 - Reporting and Assessment of Safety Occurrences in ATMa list of ATM-related occurrences which, as a minimum, shall be reported and analysed at European level. Appendix A to ESARR 2 describes the minimum data to be collected and recorded for each safety occurrence. These shall also include the main results of the investigation, such as categories of causes, level of severity and safety recommendations/interventions in case an occurrence has been analysed in detail.

The full text of ESARR 2 - Reporting and Assessment of Safety Occurrences in ATM can be foundhere.


JAR-OPSandEU-OPSrequirements concerning safety reporting have been transposed intoIR-OPS

  • IR-OPS CAT.GEN.MPA.100describes which incidents and accidents the crew members have a responsibility to report using the company reporting scheme detailed inIR-OPS ORO.GEN.200andIR-OPS ORO.AOC.130
  • IR-OPS ORO.GEN.160describes the operators’ responsibilities for occurrence reporting
  • EU-OPS 1.085(b) describes which incidents and accidents the crew members have a responsibility to report using the company reporting scheme detailed inEU-OPS 1.037.
  • EU-OPS 1.420describes the operators’ responsibilities for occurrence reporting.

Further Reading


  • Annex 13 — Aircraft Accident Investigation;
  • ICAO Doc 9859 - Safety Management Manual, Third Edition - 2013;


(Video) Accident Case Study: Hazardous Attitudes

  • Accident Prevention and Flight Safety Programme:IR-OPS ORO.GEN.200andIR-OPS ORO.AOC.130
  • Crew Responsibilities:IR-OPS CAT.GEN.MPA.100
  • Occurrence Reporting:IR-OPS ORO.GEN.160
  • EU-OPS 1.037Accident prevention and flight safety programme;
  • EU-OPS 1.085Crew Responsibilities;
  • EU-OPS 1.420Occurrence reporting;


ESARR 2 - Reporting and Assessment of Safety Occurrences in ATM;


What is a reportable aviation incident? ›

Definition of a reportable occurrence. in the case of an accident. a person is killed or sustains a serious injury as a result of. being on board the aircraft, coming into direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts that have become detached from the aircraft, or.

What is included in reportable incidents? ›

Some broad areas that reportable incidents encompass include: Medication errors and omissions such as inappropriate drug, inappropriate dose, inappropriate rate, inappropriate route, or failure to medicate at all.

Do all aviation incidents need to be reported? ›

All aircraft accidents must be reported to the nearest National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Field Office. An understanding of the definition of accident may save you from reporting something that is not required.

What is not a reportable incident? ›

This means that the accident causing the injury must be work-related. Accidents outside of work are not reportable. For example, if a worker was injured at home and the injury resulted in over 7 days off work, it wouldn't be RIDDOR reportable because it didn't happen at work.

What is considered a non reportable incident? ›

Non-reportable Motor Vehicle Accident: No Police Report

Additionally, if there is an injury involved in the accident, that injury must also be reported within the police crash report. However, if the accident occurs on private property, such as in a parking lot, then it is not required to be reported.

What are five 5 pieces of information which should be included in an incident report? ›

Incident Reporters can capture date, time, location, witness statements, property damage, environmental damage, weather factors, work permits, scene changes, and more. Link Injuries to the body part(s) and upload relevant photos and documents.

What are the 3 types of incidents? ›

3 Types Of Incidents That Stand Out: Is Your Help Desk Prepared?
  • Major Incidents. Large-scale incidents may not come up too often, but when they do hit, organizations need to be prepared to deal with them quickly and efficiently. ...
  • Repetitive Incidents. ...
  • Complex Incidents.
May 11, 2022

What incidents must be reported to the FAA? ›

Occurrences Requiring Notification.
  • Flight control system malfunction or failure.
  • Inability of any required flight crew member to perform their normal flight duties as a result of injury or illness.
  • Failure of structural components of a turbine engine excluding compressor and turbine blades and vanes.
  • Inflight fire.

What is considered an incident in aviation? ›

Incident means an occurrence other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft, which affects or could affect the safety of operations.

Which incidents should be reported or recorded? ›

All employers must keep a record of any reportable injury, an injury that leaves a worker incapacitated for over three days, disease, or dangerous occurrence. Your records must include: the date and method of reporting. the date, time and place of the event.

What is an example of an aviation incident? ›

Japan Air Lines Flight 123

520: The crash of Japan Airlines Flight 123 on August 12, 1985, has the highest number of fatalities for any single-aircraft accident: 520 people died onboard a Boeing 747.

What are the 5 C's safety? ›

Safe adults

I have started teaching about how to be a safe adult using 5Cs which I will explore with you in this article: Calm, consistent, communication, connection, curiosity.

What are the four steps in safety reporting? ›

Investigate the incident, collect data. Analyze the data, identify the root causes. Report the findings and recommendations.

What are the 5 W of safety? ›

A Breakdown of the Pre-Start Health and Safety Review. The easiest way to understand a pre-start up safety review is to learn the five W's … what, who, why, when, and where.

What are three instances in which an incident report is required? ›

The rule of thumb is that any time a patient makes a complaint, a medication error occurs, a medical device malfunctions, or anyone—patient, staff member, or visitor—is injured or involved in a situation with the potential for injury, an incident report is required.

What is the difference between reportable and recordable incidents? ›

Step 3: Is the Recordable Incident Reportable? A recordable incident becomes a reportable incident when it meets two specific criteria: 1) it causes a fatality, or 2) it causes injuries that require in-patient hospitalization or that result in amputation or loss of an eye.

What are 3 basic elements in an incident? ›

The Three Elements of Incident Response: Plan, Team, and Tools.

What are the 3 different methods of reporting hazards and incidents? ›

Hazards can be reported verbally, electronically or by filling out company specific forms that should be available at bulletin boards or other conspicuous places. Ask your supervisor, or health and safety committee or representative if there is a formal process for reporting hazards.

What are examples of incidents? ›

For example:
  • By slipping and breaking an arm.
  • By coming into contact with a corrosive chemical.
  • By cutting themselves with a knife.
Oct 14, 2022

What are 2 types of critical incident? ›

What Is a Critical Incident? Some examples of critical incidents include assaults on employees, hostage-takings, the suicide or murder of a co- worker, accidents causing bodily harm or death, as well as airplane crashes or natural disasters including floods, fires and tornadoes.

What reports should be made to ATC at all times? ›

Pilots should report to ATC the time and altitude/flight level at which the aircraft reaches the clearance limit and report leaving the clearance limit.

What reports must be made to ATC at all times without a specific request? ›

The following reports are to be made to ATC or FSS facilities without a specific ATC request:
  • When vacating any previously assigned altitude or flight level for a newly assigned altitude or flight level.
  • When an altitude change will be made if operating on a clearance specifying VFR-on-top.

What are the required reports that must be made to ATC without specific request? ›

Reports should include aircraft identification, equipment affected, degree to which the capability to operate under IFR in the ATC system is impaired, and the nature and extent of assistance desired from ATC.

What is the difference between accident and incident in aviation? ›

the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible. Incident – means any occurrence, other than an accident, that is associated with the operation of an aircraft and affects, or could affect, the safety of operation.

What is incident in safety examples? ›

8 Types Of Incidents
  • Near Miss. A near miss, or a near hit, is an unexpected incident that almost resulted in an employee injury or damaged property. ...
  • Unsafe Acts. ...
  • Workplace Hazards. ...
  • Minor Injury. ...
  • Lost Time Accident. ...
  • Security Incident. ...
  • Fire Incident. ...
  • Fatalities.
Mar 16, 2023

What is considered a safety incident? ›

Safety Incident means an accident, incident or near-miss, whether ornot death or personal injury or other property damage is caused. Sample 1. Safety Incident means any event that has caused an injury to person, property, or environment, or a Near Miss.

Why must all safety incidents be reported? ›

Reporting them provides a way to monitor potential problems and root causes as they recur. The documentation of these problems and root causes increases the likelihood that repeating failures will be noticed and corrected before they develop into more serious incidents.

What is the difference between an incident and an accident? ›

Usually, though, an “accident” includes a serious injury or illness, while an “incident” consists of property damage, an unexpected hazard, or a minor injury.

What is an example of aviation safety? ›

Glass cockpit, FLY-BY-WIRE, Terrain avoidance warning systems like Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (E-GPWS) and Predictive wind-shear equipment are excellent examples of how technology has made aviation safer. Glass Cockpit technology provides better visual awareness to the pilots.

What is the most serious type of aircraft incident? ›

Fatal Accident: An accident causing one or more fatalities to occupants of the aircraft Substantial Damage Accident: An accident in which the aircraft sustained substantial damage Serious Accident: An accident in which either of the following two conditions are met: A single fatality without substantial damage.

What are the 4 Safety principles? ›

Four Steps to Food Safety: Clean, Separate, Cook, Chill. Following four simple steps at home—Clean, Separate, Cook, and Chill—can help protect you and your loved ones from food poisoning.

What is 4c in Safety? ›

Step 2 - Get organised. The 4 C's - Competence, Control, Co-operation and Communication are a useful aid to getting organised.

How do you write an incident report example? ›

What should you include in an incident report?
  1. When & where did it happen? Your report should contain the date, time and location where the accident took place. ...
  2. Who were involved? ...
  3. What did they do? ...
  4. Why did it happen? ...
  5. Were there any witnesses? ...
  6. What is the extent of damage to a person or property?
Nov 14, 2022

What are the 5 W's checklist? ›

What are the 5 Ws?
  • Who is it about?
  • What happened?
  • When did it take place?
  • Where did it take place?
  • Why did it happen?
May 7, 2018

What is safety 5 Whys? ›

What is the 5 Whys Technique? 5 Whys is an iterative interrogative technique used to explore the cause-and-effect relationships underlying a problem. The goal is to determine the root cause of a problem by repeating the question “Why?”. Each answer forms the basis of the next question.

What are the 6 hazards recognized by OSHA? ›

Here are hazard types recognized by OSHA:
  • Work safety hazards. Work safety hazards are the most common risks in a workplace or work environment. ...
  • Chemical hazards. ...
  • Physical hazards. ...
  • Ergonomic hazards. ...
  • Biological hazards. ...
  • Work organization hazards.
Mar 10, 2023

What are the three types of notifiable incidents? ›


Section 35 of the WHS Act defines a 'notifiable incident' as: > the death of a person, or > the serious injury or illness of a person, or > a dangerous incident. The WHS Act does not elaborate on the meaning of 'death'.

What is the difference between OSHA recordable and reportable? ›

A recordable incident becomes a reportable incident when it meets two specific criteria: 1) it causes a fatality, or 2) it causes injuries that require in-patient hospitalization or that result in amputation or loss of an eye.

What is an incident and why must it be reported? ›

Incident reporting is the process of recording worksite events, including near misses, injuries, and accidents. It entails documenting all the facts related to incidents in the workplace. Incidents are generally accidents or events that cause injuries to workers or damages to property or equipment.

What can be classified as an incident? ›

Incident classification is a standardized way of organizing incidents with established categories. Incidents can include outages caused by errors in code, hardware failures, resource deficits — anything that disrupts normal operations.

What can be considered an incident? ›

An incident is an event that has unintentionally happened, but this may not result in damage, harm or injury. Therefore, every accident can be an incident.

What are the 4 types of incidents? ›

Another approach would be to have four types: Accident, Notifiable Accident, Incident and Notifiable Incident.

What are the 5 categories of incidents? ›

The simple model shown in Figure 1 attempts to illustrate that the causes of any incident can be grouped into five categories - task, material, environment, personnel, and management.

What is an example of a notifiable incident? ›

Notifiable Incidents
  • Amputation (of ANY part of the body)
  • A serious head injury.
  • A serious eye injury.
  • Separation of skin from underlying tissue, such as de-gloving or scalping.
  • Electric shock.
  • Spinal injury.
  • Loss of a bodily function.
  • Serious laceration.

Is a chipped tooth a recordable injury? ›

Are chipped or broken teeth recordable? Yes, these cases are considered significant by OSHA if diagnosed by a health care professional.

Is a concussion a recordable? ›

Yes, this is a recordable injury.

What are reportable injuries? ›

any injury likely to lead to permanent loss of sight or reduction in sight. any crush injury to the head or torso causing damage to the brain or internal organs.

What are six things that need to be included in an incident report? ›

It should include:
  • the names and positions of the people involved.
  • the names of any witnesses.
  • the exact location and/or address of the incident.
  • the exact time and date of the occurrence.
  • a detailed and clear description of what exactly happened.
  • a description of the injuries.
Aug 24, 2022

What is the procedure for reporting incidents? ›

An effective incident investigation process involves four key steps: incident description, identification of causes, identification of changes to the organisation and work processes, and learning.


2. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System- UAS Reporting Program
(Tactical Aviation)
3. Aviation English Approach - Tools for reporting an incident/accident
(AE approach)
4. Incident Reporting Animation | Quantum Safety
(Quantum Safety)
5. Aviation Safety Management - Kathy Fox of the TSB at McGill University
(McGill School of Continuing Studies)
6. Lay the ground for a safe flight - Systematic reporting of aircraft damage
(Ministères Écologie Énergie Territoires)


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