The Ultimate Guide to Nursing Diagnosis in 2023 (2023)


February 20, 2023

The Ultimate Guide to Nursing Diagnosis in 2023 (1)

The Ultimate Guide to Nursing Diagnosis in 2023 (2)

By: Kathleen Gaines News and Education Editor, MSN, RN, BA, CBC

A nursing diagnosis is a part of the nursing process and is a clinical judgment that helps nurses determine the plan of care for their patients. These diagnoses drive possible interventions for the patient, family, and community. They are developed with thoughtful consideration of a patient’s physical assessment and can help measure outcomes for the nursing care plan. In this article, we'll explore the NANDA nursing diagnosis list, examples of nursing diagnoses, and the 4 types.

Some nurses may see nursing diagnoses as outdated and arduous. However, it is an essential tool that promotes patient safety by utilizing evidence-based nursing research.

According to NANDA-I, the official definition of the nursing diagnosis is:

“Nursing diagnosis is a clinical judgment about individual, family, or community responses to actual or potential health problems/life processes. A nursing diagnosis provides the basis for selection of nursing interventions to achieve outcomes for which the nurse is accountable.”

The three main components of a nursing diagnosis are as follows.

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  1. Problem and its definition
  2. Etiology
  3. Defining characteristics or risk factors

Examples of proper nursing diagnoses may include:

"Ineffective breathing patterns related to pulmonary hypoplasia as evidenced by intermittent subcostal and intercostal retractions, tachypnea, abdominal breathing, and the need for ongoing oxygen support."


"Ineffective airway clearance related to gastroesophageal reflux as evidenced by retching, upper airway congestion, and persistent coughing."

According to NANDA International, a nursing diagnosis is “a judgment based on a comprehensive nursing assessment.” The nursing diagnosis is based on the patient’s current situation and health assessment, allowing nurses and other healthcare providers to see a patient's care from a holistic perspective.

Proper nursing diagnoses can lead to greater patient safety, quality care, and increased reimbursement from private health insurance, Medicare, and Medicaid.

They are just as beneficial to nurses as they are to patients.

>> Related: What is the Nursing Process?

NANDA diagnoses help strengthen a nurse’s awareness, professional role, and professional abilities.

Formed in 1982, NANDAis a professional organization that develops, researches, disseminates, and refines the nursing terminology of nursing diagnosis. Originally an acronym for the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, NANDA was renamed to NANDA International in 2002 as a response to its broadening worldwide membership.

According to its website, NANDA International’s mission is to:

  1. Provide the world’s leading evidence-based nursing diagnoses for use in practice and to determine interventions and outcomes
  2. Contribute to patient safety through the integration of evidence-based terminology into clinical practice and clinical decision-making
  3. Fund research through the NANDA-I Foundation
  4. Be a supportive and energetic global network of nurses, who are committed to improving the quality of nursing care and improvement of patient safety through evidence-based practice

NANDA members can be found worldwide, specifically in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Netherlands, Belgium, and Nigeria-Ghana.

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There are 4 types of nursing diagnoses according to NANDA-I. They are:

  1. Problem-focused
  2. Risk
  3. Health promotion
  4. Syndrome

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1. Problem-focused diagnosis

A patient problem present during a nursing assessment is known as a problem-focused diagnosis. Generally, the problem is seen throughout several shifts or a patient’s entire hospitalization. However, it may be resolved during a shift depending on the nursing and medical care.

Problem-focused diagnoses have three components.

  • Nursing diagnosis
  • Related factors
  • Defining characteristics

Examples of this type of nursing diagnosis include:

  • Decreased cardiac output
  • Chronic functional constipation
  • Impaired gas exchange

Problem-focused nursing diagnoses are typically based on signs and symptoms present in the patient. They are the most common nursing diagnoses and the easiest to identify.

2. Risk nursing diagnosis

A risk nursing diagnosis applies when risk factors require intervention from the nurse and healthcare team prior to a real problem developing.

Examples of this type of nursing diagnosis include:

  • Risk for imbalanced fluid volume
  • Risk for ineffective childbearing process
  • Risk for impaired oral mucous membrane integrity

This type of diagnosis often requires clinical reasoning and nursing judgment.

3. Health promotion diagnosis

The goal of a health promotion nursing diagnosis is to improve the overall well-being of an individual, family, or community.

Examples of this type of nursing diagnosis include:

  • Readiness for enhanced family processes
  • Readiness for enhanced hope
  • Sedentary lifestyle

4. Syndrome diagnosis

A syndrome diagnosis refers to a cluster of nursing diagnoses that occur in a pattern or can all be addressed through the same or similar nursing interventions.

Examples of this diagnosis include:

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  • Decreased cardiac output
  • Decreased cardiac tissue perfusion
  • Ineffective cerebral tissue perfusion
  • Ineffective peripheral tissue perfusion

Possible nursing diagnosis

While not an official type of nursing diagnosis, possible nursing diagnosis applies to problems suspected to arise. This occurs when risk factors are present and require additional information to diagnose a potential problem.

The three main components of a nursing diagnosis are:

  1. Problem and its definition
  2. Etiology or risk factors
  3. Defining characteristics or risk factors

1. The problem statement explains the patient’s current health problem and the nursing interventions needed to care for the patient.

2. Etiology, or related factors, describes the possible reasons for the problem or the conditions in which it developed. These related factors guide the appropriate nursing interventions.

3. Finally, defining characteristics are signs and symptoms that allow for applying a specific diagnostic label. Risk factors are used in the place of defining characteristics for risk nursing diagnosis. They refer to factors that increase the patient’s vulnerability to health problems.

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Problem-focused and risk diagnoses are the most difficult nursing diagnoses to write because they have multiple parts. According to NANDA-I, the simplest ways to write these nursing diagnoses are as follows:


Problem-Focused Diagnosis related to ______________________ (Related Factors) as evidenced by _________________________ (Defining Characteristics).


The correct statement for a NANDA-I nursing diagnosis would be: Risk for _____________ as evidenced by __________________________ (Risk Factors).

NANDA-I adopted the Taxonomy II after consideration and collaboration with the National Library of Medicine (NLM) in regards to healthcare terminology codes. Taxonomy II has three levels: domains, classes, and nursing diagnoses.

There are currently 13 domains and 47 classes:

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  • Domain 1 - Health Promotion
    • Health Awareness
    • Health Management
  • Domain 2 - Nutrition
    • Ingestion
    • Digestion
    • Absorption
    • Metabolism
    • Hydration
  • Domain 3 - Elimination/Exchange
    • Urinary Function
    • Gastrointestinal Function
    • Integumentary Function
    • Respiratory Function
  • Domain 4 - Activity/Rest
    • Sleep/Rest
    • Activity/Exercise
    • Energy Balance
    • Cardiovascular-Pulmonary Responses
    • Self Care
  • Domain 5 - Perception/Cognition
    • Attention
    • Orientation
    • Sensation/Perception
    • Cognition
    • Communication
  • Domain 6 - Self-Perception
    • Self-concept
    • Self-esteem
    • Body image
  • Domain 7 - Role Relationship
    • Caregiving Roles
    • Family Relationships
    • Role Performance
  • Domain 8 - Sexuality
    • Sexual Identity
    • Sexual Function
    • Reproduction
  • Domain 9 - Coping/Stress Tolerance
    • Post-trauma Responses
    • Coping Response
    • Neuro-Behavioral Stress
  • Domain 10 - Life Principles
    • Values
    • Beliefs
    • Value/Belief Action Congruence
  • Domain 11 - Safety/Protection
    • Infection
    • Physical Injury
    • Violence
    • Environmental Hazards
    • Defensive Processes
    • Thermoregulation
  • Domain 12 - Comfort
    • Physical Comfort
    • Environmental Comfort
    • Social Comfort
  • Domain 13 - Growth/Development
    • Growth
    • Development

This refined Taxonomy is based on the Functional Health Patterns assessment framework of Dr. Mary Joy Gordon. Furthermore, the NLM suggested changes because the Taxonomy I code structure included information about the location and the level of the diagnosis.

NANDA-I nursing diagnoses and Taxonomy II comply with the International Standards Organization (ISO) terminology model for a nursing diagnosis.

The terminology is also registered with Health Level Seven International (HL7), an international healthcare informatics standard that allows for nursing diagnoses to be identified in specific electronic messages among different clinical information systems.

While all important, the nursing diagnosis is primarily handled through specific nursing interventions while a medical diagnosis is made by a physician or advanced healthcare practitioner.

The nursing diagnosis can be mental, spiritual, psychosocial, and/or physical. It focuses on the overall care of the patient while the medical diagnosis involves the medical aspect of the patient’s condition.

A medical diagnosis does not change if the condition is resolved, and it remains part of the patient’s health history forever. A nursing diagnosis, however, generally refers to a specific period of time.

Examples of medical diagnosis include:

  1. Arthritis
  2. Congestive Heart Failure
  3. Diabetes Insipidus
  4. Meningitis
  5. Scoliosis
  6. Stroke

Collaborative problems are ones that can be resolved or worked on through both nursing and medical interventions. Oftentimes, nurses will monitor the problems while the medical providers prescribe medications or obtain diagnostic tests.

  1. 1973: The first conference to identify nursing knowledge and a classification system; NANDA was founded
  2. 1977: First Canadian Conference takes place in Toronto
  3. 1982: NANDA formed with members from the United States and Canada
  4. 1984: NANDA established a Diagnosis Review Committee
  5. 1987: American Nurses Association (ANA) officially recognizes NANDA to govern the development of a classification system for nursing diagnosis
  6. 1987: International Nursing Conference held in Alberta, Canada
  7. 1990: 9th NANDA conference and the official definition of the nursing diagnosis established
  8. 1997: Official journal renamed from “Nursing Diagnosis” to “Nursing Diagnosis: The International Journal of Nursing Terminologies and Classifications”
  9. 2002: NANDA changes to NANDA International (NANDA-I) and Taxonomy II released
  10. 2020: 244 NANDA-I approved diagnosis

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There is currently no difference between American nursing diagnoses and international nursing diagnoses. Because NANDA-I is an international organization, the approved nursing diagnoses are the same.

Discrepancies may occur when the translation of a nursing diagnosis into another language alters the syntax and structure. However, since there are NANDA-I offices around the world, the non-English nursing diagnoses are essentially the same.

A full list of NANDA-I-approved nursing diagnoses can be found here.

Additional examples include:

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  1. Dysfunctional ventilatory weaning response
  2. Impaired transferability
  3. Activity intolerance
  4. Situational low self-esteem
  5. Risk for disturbed maternal-fetal dyad
  6. Impaired emancipated decision-making
  7. Risk for impaired skin integrity
  8. Risk for metabolic imbalance syndrome
  9. Urge urinary incontinence
  10. Risk for unstable blood pressure
  11. Impaired verbal communication
  12. Acute confusion
  13. Disturbed body image
  14. Relocation stress syndrome
  15. Ineffective role performance
  16. Readiness for enhanced sleep
  • What is an example of a nursing diagnosis?

    • A nursing diagnosis is something a nurse can make that does not require an advanced provider’s input. It is not a medical diagnosis. An example of a nursing diagnosis is: Excessive fluid volume related to congestive heart failure as evidenced by symptoms of edema.
  • What is the most common nursing diagnosis?

    • According to NANDA, some of the most common nursing diagnoses include pain, risk of infection, constipation, and body temperature imbalance.
  • What is a potential nursing diagnosis?

    • A potential problem is an issue that could occur with the patient’s medical diagnosis, but there are no current signs and symptoms of it. For instance, skin integrity breakdown could occur in a patient with limited mobility.
  • How is a nursing diagnosis written?

    • Nursing diagnoses are written with a problem or potential problem related to a medical condition, as evidenced by any presenting symptoms. There are 4 types of nursing diagnoses: risk-focused, problem-focused, health promotion-focused, or syndrome-focused.
  • What is the clinical diagnosis?

    • A clinical diagnosis is the official medical diagnosis issued by a physician or other advanced care professional.


The Ultimate Guide to Nursing Diagnosis in 2023? ›

Book details

Ackley's Nursing Diagnosis Handbook: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care, 12th Edition Revised Reprint with 2021-2023 NANDA-I© Updates helps you select appropriate nursing diagnoses and write care plans with ease and confidence.

What is the latest edition of Nanda book? ›

NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses
  • Edition: 12 2021.
  • Details: 592 pages, 10 ill., Paperback (Perfect Binding)
  • ISBN: 9781684204540.
  • Media Type: Book.
  • Language of text: English.

What year is Nursing Diagnosis Handbook 12th edition? ›

Book details

Ackley's Nursing Diagnosis Handbook: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care, 12th Edition Revised Reprint with 2021-2023 NANDA-I© Updates helps you select appropriate nursing diagnoses and write care plans with ease and confidence.

What are the top 3 nursing diagnosis? ›

The four types of nursing diagnosis are Actual (Problem-Focused), Risk, Health Promotion, and Syndrome.

What are the 4 types of nursing diagnosis by NANDA? ›

NANDA-I recognizes four categories of nursing diagnoses: problem focused diagnosis, risk diagnosis, health promotion diagnosis, and syndrome. Problem focused diagnoses, also known as actual diagnoses, are patient issues or problems that are present and observable during the assessment phase.

What is the name of the NANDA nursing diagnosis book? ›

Heather Herdman, Shigemi Kamitsuru, and Camila Takáo Lopes, NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions and Classification, 2021-2023, 12th Edition is the definitive guide to nursing diagnoses, as reviewed and approved by the NANDA International (NANDA-I) Diagnosis Development Committee (DDC).

When was Fundamentals of nursing 11th edition published? ›

Product information
Publisher‎Elsevier; 11th edition (February 7, 2022)
Hardcover‎1536 pages
5 more rows

What are the 13 domains of nursing diagnosis? ›

There are currently 13 domains and 47 classes:
  • Domain 1 - Health Promotion. Health Awareness. ...
  • Domain 2 - Nutrition. Ingestion. ...
  • Domain 3 - Elimination/Exchange. Urinary Function. ...
  • Domain 4 - Activity/Rest. Sleep/Rest. ...
  • Domain 5 - Perception/Cognition. ...
  • Domain 6 - Self-Perception. ...
  • Domain 7 - Role Relationship. ...
  • Domain 8 - Sexuality.

When was nursing Care Plans 10th edition published? ›

Product information
Publisher‎Elsevier; 10th edition (February 19, 2021)
Paperback‎992 pages
Item Weight‎4.5 pounds
6 more rows

What year was the newest NMC code? ›

? On 31 March 2015, the new NMC Code of professional standards for nurses and midwives came into force. The new Code puts patients and service users at the heart of practice with the intention of better protecting the public.

Are nursing diagnosis still used? ›

To my knowledge, nursing diagnoses are no longer really used in practice, much less those endless care plans.

When was the Nanda list of nursing diagnoses published? ›

In 1973, Kristine Gebbie and Mary Ann Lavin called the First National Conference on the Classification of Nursing Diagnoses (Gebbie & Lavin, 1975). It was held in St. Louis, Missouri. Attendees produced a beginning classification, an alphabetized list of nursing diagnoses.

What is the nursing process 2023? ›

The nursing process:

The nursing process is a systematic, problem-solving approach used by nurses to provide patient-centered care. It is a five-step process that includes assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation.

What are the 5 types of nursing diagnosis? ›

There are five types of nursing diagnoses: problem-focused, risk, possible, health promotion, and syndrome. A problem-focused nursing diagnosis “describes human responses to health conditions/life processes that exist in an individual, family, or community.

What are the 21 categories of nursing problems? ›

The 21 nursing problems fall into three categories: physical, sociological, and emotional needs of patients; types of interpersonal relationships between the patient and nurse; and common elements of patient care.

What is a code blue in nursing diagnosis? ›

A code blue is activated if a patient or individual is found unconscious, without a pulse, or not breathing. Nurses have a huge responsibility of identifying sudden changes in the patient's status and using critical thinking skills to support the patient while the other team members soon arrive to assist.

How is a Nanda different from a medical diagnosis? ›

NANDA International Knowledgebase. What is the difference between a medical diagnosis and a nursing diagnosis? A medical diagnosis deals with disease or medical condition. A nursing diagnosis deals with human response to actual or potential health problems and life processes.

Which is an example of an actual nursing diagnosis? ›

An example of an actual nursing diagnosis is: Sleep deprivation. Describes human responses to health conditions/life processes that may develop in a vulnerable individual/family/community. It is supported by risk factors that contribute to increased vulnerability. An example of a risk diagnosis is: Risk for shock.

How do you set up a Nanda nursing diagnosis? ›

Nursing diagnoses must include the problem and its definition, the etiology of the problem, and the defining characteristics or risk factors of the problem. The problem statement explains the patient's current health problem and the nursing interventions needed to care for the patient.

Do nurses use Nanda? ›

The NANDA-I, NOC, and NIC are the most common standardized nursing languages systems [5].

Why do nurses use Nanda? ›

NANDA International, originally known as the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, was founded in 1982. The purpose of NANDA is to develop standardized terminology so nurses can have a common language to communicate the needs of their patients and more easily understand what needs to be done for patients.

What was the first book on nursing? ›

One of these books, “notes on nursing” was published in 1860 that is the first book in nursing education.

What is the first published nursing theory? ›

The first nursing theories appeared in the late 1800s when a strong emphasis was placed on nursing education. In 1860, Florence Nightingale defined nursing in her “Environmental Theory” as “the act of utilizing the patient's environment to assist him in his recovery.”

Who wrote Fundamentals of Nursing 4th edition? ›

Kozier and Erb's Fundamentals of Nursing 4th Edition is written by Audrey Berman; Shirlee Snyder; Geralyn Frandsen; Tracy Levett-Jones; Trudy Dwyer; Majella Hale and published by P. Ed Australia.

What are the 4 major domains of nursing? ›

Fawcett has named person, health, environment and nursing as the four main concepts of nursing that need to be comprehensively defined.

Is anxiety a nursing diagnosis? ›

Anxiety is a nursing diagnosis, as well as a potential mental health disorder. While implementing interventions that address medical conditions, often the nurse must also implement interventions that address associated anxiety.

What are the 4 domains of nurses? ›

There are four fields of nursing: adult nursing • children's nursing • learning disabilities nursing • mental health nursing.

When was contemporary nursing 9th edition published? ›

Product information
Publisher‎Elsevier; 9th edition (March 16, 2022)
Item Weight‎1.9 pounds
Dimensions‎7.5 x 0.75 x 9 inches
6 more rows

Do nurses still write care plans? ›

Writing a nursing care plan takes time and practice. It is something you will learn during nursing school and will continue to use throughout your nursing career.

When was contemporary nursing 8th edition published? ›

Product information
Publisher‎Mosby; 8th edition (November 12, 2018)
Paperback‎536 pages
Item Weight‎1.8 pounds
6 more rows

What are the 6 C's of nursing? ›

The 6 Cs – care, compassion, courage, communication, commitment, competence - are a central part of 'Compassion in Practice', which was first established by NHS England Chief Nursing Officer, Jane Cummings, in December 2017.

What are the nine code of ethics for nurses? ›

The 7 ethical principles the Nursing Code of Ethics is based upon include beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, accountability, autonomy, fidelity, and veracity. The following are brief descriptions of each of the ethical principles.

What are the 4 pillars of advanced practice NMC? ›

The four pillars of advanced practice are clinical practice, leadership and management, education, and research.

Do nurses actually use nursing diagnoses? ›

Real nurses don't even use it. We might say in passing he or she has a knowledge deficit, fluid imbalance or skin integrity issues but we don't actually do nursing care plans.

Are nurses allowed to tell diagnosis? ›

As a staff nurse, you do not have the authority to admit a patient and provide a diagnosis unless after all of the requirements of your policy are met, you make a nursing diagnosis. If you have not reviewed your institution's policy and procedure on admissions, you should do so.

Can doctors make nursing diagnosis? ›

Nursing diagnosis is a term that has come into use in recent years through nursing education. It has physicians confused and some health care attorneys concerned. For the most part, making a diagnosis is an act of medical judgment that may be done only by a licensed physician.

Is NANDA an evidence based practice? ›

We provide the world's leading evidence-based nursing diagnoses for use in practice and to determine interventions and outcomes. We are a supportive and energetic global network of nurses, who are committed to improving the quality of nursing care and improvement of patient safety through evidence-based practice.

Who is the founder of nursing diagnosis? ›

 History of Nursing Diagnosis  1953-Fry proposed the formulation of a nursing diagnosis.

What are the challenges for nurses in 2023? ›

John Murray, RGN, MSc, outlines the top three main challenges in nursing in 2023, which include staff retention, recruitment, and training.

What is changing in NCLEX 2023? ›

The Next Gen NCLEX will also have a new scoring method. Currently, the NCLEX items are scored as either all incorrect or all correct. Using a scoring model that accounts for multiple answers will allow for partial credit. It will go into effect in April 2023.

Is there a nursing shortage in 2023? ›

The 2023 State of Nursing Findings

The survey revealed that nurses continue to feel burnt out, overwhelmed with continued staffing shortages, and uncertain about the future.

What are the 4 steps of nursing diagnosis? ›

These are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation.

What is the difference between DSM V and nursing diagnosis? ›

NANDA-I nursing diagnoses, unlike DSM5 (APA, 2013) diagnoses, identify the patient's response to health problems, not the medical diagnosis. They are based upon the conceptualization of the human response to actual or potential health problems from the unique nursing perspective.

How do you prioritize nursing diagnosis? ›

Nurses should apply the concept of ABCs to each patient situation. Prioritization begins with determining immediate threats to life as part of the initial assessment and is based on the ABC pneumonic focusing on the airway as priority, moving to breathing, and circulation (Ignatavicius et al., 2018).

What are the top priority nursing diagnosis? ›

Nursing diagnoses are ranked in order of importance. Survival needs or imminent life-threatening problems take the highest priority. For example, the needs for air, water, and food are survival needs.

What is the most difficult aspect of nursing? ›

7 hardest parts of nursing
  • Losing patients. ...
  • Being judged for their career choice. ...
  • Working long hours. ...
  • Experiencing physical/verbal abuse. ...
  • Navigating hospital politics. ...
  • Using outdated or time-consuming technology. ...
  • Feeling pressure to know everything.
May 31, 2019

When was Essentials of nursing Research 10th edition published? ›

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Publisher‎LWW; Tenth, North American edition (March 18, 2021)
Customer Reviews4.4 out of 5 stars 302Reviews
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When was Lewis medical Surgical nursing 11th edition published? ›

Product information
Publisher‎Mosby; 11th edition (October 10, 2019)
Hardcover‎1712 pages
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When was Fundamentals of nursing tenth edition published? ›

Product information
Publisher‎LWW; Tenth, North American edition (September 28, 2022)
Hardcover‎2024 pages
7 more rows

When was fundamentals of nursing ninth edition published? ›

Product information
Publisher‎Mosby; 9th edition (March 10, 2016)
Hardcover‎1392 pages
Item Weight‎6.1 pounds
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How do I find nursing research articles? ›

A very useful means of finding articles written by nurses is to use CINAHL (“Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature”), an electronic database accessible via the “Database List” link on the homepage of the Biomedical Library.

When was Concepts for Nursing Practice 3rd edition published? ›

Product information
Publisher‎Mosby; 3rd edition (February 17, 2020)
Hardcover‎576 pages
6 more rows

Who was the first nurse to publish a nursing theory? ›

The first nursing theorist, Florence Nightingale, created detailed reports of both medical and nursing matters as chief nurse for the British in the Crimean War in the mid-1850s.

What is the cost of medical surgical nursing book? ›

₹1,200.00. Shipping cost, delivery date and order total (including tax) shown at checkout. Sold by All India Book House and Fulfilled by Amazon.

What is the latest edition of Fundamentals of nursing? ›

Product information
Publisher‎Elsevier; 11th edition (February 7, 2022)
Item Weight‎7.34 pounds
Best Sellers Rank#22,497 in Books (See Top 100 in Books) #6 in Nursing Fundamentals & Skills (Books) #26 in General (Books)
Customer Reviews4.7 out of 5 stars 124Reviews
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Which decade was most memorable to nursing informatics? ›

For nursing informatics, the 1980s was the growth-spurt decade which propelled it into the profession that it is today.

Who published 4 volumes called The History of nursing? ›

Dock, L.L. (1912) A history of nursing. (in 4 volumes) vol. 3 (2) & vol 4 New York, NY: Putnam.

When was nurse's Pocket Guide 15th edition published? ›

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Publisher‎F.A. Davis Company; Fifteenth edition (March 5, 2019)
Customer Reviews4.7 out of 5 stars 1,704Reviews
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When was Campbell 9th edition published? ›

Product information
Publisher‎Benjamin Cummings; 9th edition (October 7, 2010)
Hardcover‎1464 pages
Item Weight‎6.53 pounds
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Is fundamentals of nursing a hard class? ›

Nursing Fundamentals is a difficult class. And, as you take Nursing Fundamentals, you want to show your ability to succeed as a nurse by excelling in this class!


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